Helpful References
  • Cousins, A. (1948). A History of the Illawarra & Shoalhaven Districts 1770-1900. Australia: Producers’ Co-op. Distribution Society LTD.
  • Herben, C. (2004). 60th Anniversary Commemorative Issue. Wollongong: The Illawarra Historical Society.
  • Illawarra Historical Society. (1973). The Guns of Wollongong. Wollongong: The Illawarra Historical Society.
  • Illawarra Rotary Club. (1989). Smith’s Hill Battery Re-Enactment Firing of 80 lb RML Guns Sunday 29th January 1989. Wollongong: Illawarra Rotary Club.
  • Illawarra Rotary Club. (2009). Briefing Document for Preparation of School Excursion Notes and Web Based Resources. Wollongong: Illawarra Rotary Club.
  • Illawarra Rotary Club. (2009). The Smiths Hill Fort (Also Known as the Cliff Rd Battery). Wollongong: Illawarra Rotary Club.
  • Scott, G. (1980). The History of the Fortifications Around Wollongong. Wollongong: G. Scott.
  • Scott, G. (1980). Wollongong Harbour Fortifications. Wollongong: Illawarra Historical Society Bulletin.
  • Scott, G. (1981). The Smiths Hill Fort Project 1981. Wollongong: G. Scott.
  • Scott, G. (1986). Forts of the Illawarra. Wollongong: The Environmental Heritage Committee Wollongong- Shellharbour-Kiama.
  • Scott, G. (1989). Australia Day Weekend. Wollongong: G. Scott.
  • Wilson, G. (1984). Smith’s Hill Fort, Wollongong; Excavation of Northern Gun Pit. November 1984. Wollongong: The Environmental Heritage Committee.
  • Wollongong City of Innovation. (2007). The Blue Mile Vision: A Master Plan to Maximise Wollongong’s Advantages as a City by the Sea. Wollongong: Wollongong City Council.


The following newspaper articles are from the Wollongong Defences Local Cuttings File at the Wollongong City Library (in chronological order):

  • Cousins, A. ‘Wollongong Military H.Q. Of Illawarra’. 1937.
  • ‘Wollongong’s Old Forts: An Historical Survey’. Illawarra Mercury. 2 July 1937.
  • ‘Historians gunning for recollections’. 16 November 1979.
  • ‘Old Fort May Become Museum: Body Seeks Public Help’. 28 April 1980.
  • ‘Aldermen Agree with Battery Park Plan’. 17 June 1981.
  • Green, D. ‘Town Went Gunning for Time’. Illawarra Mercury. 28 June 1984.
  • Green, D. Defence Could not Have Failed to Have the Desired Effect'. Illawarra Mercury. 5 July 1984, p.16.
  • Failes, G. ‘Restoration Battle Not Over’. 31 August 1988.
  • Kelly, B. ‘History Unearthed at Park: Gun site rising again’. Illawarra Mercury. 9 November 1988.
  • Failes, G. ‘Council Agrees to Reinstall Old Guns’. Sun Herald. 13 November 1988, p.27.
  • Spiesser, W. ‘Battery Park Captures Part of City’s Past’. The Advertiser.
  • 16 November 1988, p.9. ‘West to Open Restored Colonial Fort’. 17 December 1988.
  • Treasure, K. ‘Tourist Site Rises from Ash: Smiths Hill Fort Aims to Link City with Past’. Illawarra Mercury. 19 December 1988.
  • ‘History Rises from the Ashes’. The Advertiser. 21 December 1988.